Support for WebAssembly (Wasm)

Last updated March 13, 2024

The Flutter and Dart teams are excited to add WebAssembly as a compilation target when building applications for the web.

Development of WebAssembly support for Dart and Flutter remains ongoing, which will potentially result in frequent changes. Revisit this page for the latest updates.



To run a Flutter app that has been compiled to Wasm, you need a browser that supports WasmGC. The Wasm standard plans to add WasmGC to help garbage-collected languages like Dart execute code in an efficient manner.

Chromium and V8 released stable support for WasmGC in Chromium 119. Note that Chrome on iOS uses WebKit, which doesn't yet support WasmGC. Firefox announced stable support for WasmGC in Firefox 120, but currently does not work due to a known limitation.

Try it out


To try a pre-built Flutter web app using Wasm, check out the Material 3 WasmGC preview demo.

To experiment with Wasm in your own apps, follow the steps below.

Switch to the Flutter beta channel and upgrade


Wasm compilation is available on the latest builds of the beta channel (preferred) or main.

To learn more about Flutter build release channels and how to switch to the beta channel, check out the Flutter wiki.

To then ensure you are running the latest version, run flutter upgrade.

To verify if your Flutter install supports Wasm, run flutter build web --help.

At the bottom of the output, you should find experimental Wasm options like:

Experimental options
    --wasm                       Compile to WebAssembly rather than JavaScript.
                                 See for more information.
    --[no-]strip-wasm            Whether to strip the resulting wasm file of static symbol names.
                                 (defaults to on)

Pick a (simple) Flutter web application


Try the default template sample app, or choose any Flutter application that has been migrated to be compatible with Wasm.

Modify index.html


Before building with Wasm, you'll need to modify the bootstrap logic in your app's web/index.html file.

  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <title>Flutter web app</title>
  <script src="flutter.js"></script>

This feature is under development. The current syntax (flutter.js, {{flutter_build_config}}, _flutter.loader.load()) is a temporary solution in the beta and main channels now, but will be replaced by the actual syntax in an upcoming stable release. Stay tuned!

Run flutter build web --wasm


To build a web application with Wasm, add the --wasm flag to the existing flutter build web command.

flutter build web --wasm

The command sends its output to the build/web directory relative to package root.

Serve the output locally with an HTTP server


If you don't have a local HTTP server installed, you can use the dhttpd package:

flutter pub global activate dhttpd

Then change to the build/web directory and run the server with special headers:

$ cd build/web
$ dhttpd '--headers=Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy=credentialless;Cross-Origin-Opener-Policy=same-origin'
Server started on port 8080

Load it in a browser


As of March 13, 2024, only Chromium-based browsers (Version 119 or later) are able to run Flutter/Wasm content.

If your configured browser meets the requirements, open localhost:8080 in the browser to view the app.

If the application doesn't load:

  1. Check the developer console for errors.
  2. Validate a successful build with the typical JavaScript output.

Known limitations


Wasm support currently has some limitations. The following list covers some common issues.

Chrome 119 or later


As mentioned in Load it in a browser, to run Flutter web apps compiled to Wasm, use Chrome 119 or later.

Some earlier versions supported WasmGC with specific flags enabled, but WasmGC encodings changed once the feature was stabilized. To ensure compatibility, run the latest version of the Flutter main channel and the latest version of Chrome.

  • Why not Firefox? Firefox versions 120 and later were previously able to run Flutter/Wasm, but they're currently experiencing a bug that is blocking compatibility with Wasm.
  • Why not Safari? Safari does not support WasmGC yet; this bug tracks their implementation efforts.

Requires JS-interop to access browser and JS APIs


To support compilation to Wasm, Dart has shifted how it enables interop with browser and JavaScript APIs. This shift prevents Dart code that uses dart:html or package:js from compiling to Wasm.

Instead, Dart now provides new, lightweight interop solutions built around static JS interop:

Most packages owned by the Dart and Flutter teams have been migrated to be compatible with Wasm support in Flutter, such as package:url_launcher. To learn how to migrate your packages and applications to the new solutions, check out the JS interop documentation and package:web migration guide.

To check if a Wasm build failed due to incompatible APIs, review the error output. These often return soon after a build invocation. An API-related error should resemble the following:

Target dart2wasm failed: Exception: ../../../../.pub-cache/hosted/ Error: Dart library 'dart:html' is not available on this platform.
import 'dart:html' as html;
Context: The unavailable library 'dart:html' is imported through these packages:

    web_plugin_registrant.dart => package:url_launcher_web => dart:html
    web_plugin_registrant.dart => package:url_launcher_web => package:flutter_web_plugins => dart:html
    web_plugin_registrant.dart => package:flutter_web_plugins => dart:html

Only build support


Neither flutter run nor DevTools support Wasm at the moment.

Learn more


Check out Flutter's existing web support. Work on Flutter and Dart Wasm support continues. Once finished, your existing Flutter web apps shouldn't need much work to support Wasm.

If you want to learn more, watch this talk from our team at Wasm I/O 2023: Flutter, Dart, and WasmGC: A new model for web applications.

To follow the latest changes in the Flutter and Dart WebAssembly effort, revisit